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L'événement -monde à travers la photographie de presse : la "revolution orange" dans la presse écrite ukrainienne, russe, canadienne et française

Abstract : This paper examines the relationship between the internationalization of political and media communication and the media construction of visual worlds from the perspective of information and communication sciences. The main question concerns the role of the press photography in media coverage of the Orange Revolution (Ukraine, 2004). Indeed, visual aspects played an important role in the Orange Revolution and in its media coverage. They are enrolled even in the name of the event. The term "Orange Revolution" consists of a political term "revolution" and an adjective "orange" which refers to the colour of the Ukrainian political opposition. Like the political changes of 1989, such as the fall of the Berlin Wall, the Velvet Revolution in Prague or the Romanian Revolution, the Orange Revolution was a "live broadcasted revolution". This highly mediatised event in the international communication space was first presented through its visual representations, conveyed by press photography and television. The Orange Revolution is a "media event", the term defined and studied by Dayan and Katz (Dayan, Katz, 1994). Watched by audiences spread around the world such events can operate as collective rituals of communion through which societies express and reaffirm their values (Coman, 2003). Discourses and images found the communication space of the society and establish the mediation of information and opinion. They enable us to recognize norms and values transmitted by the media. In the internationalized communication space, the conditions of diffusion and circulation of information are changing with the development of broadcasting techniques and the emergence of new communication practices. The internationalization of communication leads to different visibility of political actors and political movements and to the formation of new audiences. In fact, the diffusion of social and political claims is no longer limited to public opinion in the concerned countries. The coverage of media events can contribute to the construction of a common or consensual cultural framework and the emergence of new identities and new forms of citizenship beyond the state boundaries. However, media events can also divide and strengthen the antagonism; they operate in such cases as rituals of excommunication (Carey, 1998).The visual image takes an important place in the construction of media events in modern societies (Augé, 1994). It is used by all types of media and gives the impression to have a direct access to raw data devoid of journalistic comments. Press photography signs the representations of events and actors in a space of visibility, gives them an aesthetic consistency and integrates them into the logic of identification (Lamizet, 2006). Press photography operates the mediation between the singular experience of the readers of the press and their collective experience. It establishes a triple distance: between information and feelings, between political commitment of the media and their spectacular dimension, and, finally between the position of the reader as an engaged person and her/his position as a distanced spectator (Boltanski, 1993).Considered by ones as a struggle for freedom against an authoritarian regime, as an expression of the will of Ukraine to emancipate itself from Russia and to approach the European Union, the Orange Revolution was interpreted by others as a change of the regime manipulated by the United States in their strategy to block the development of Russia and to ensure their influence in Central and Eastern Europe. These political and geopolitical interpretations of the event are largely based on the opposition between the democratic norm and the authoritarian exception. Indeed, the discourse of democratic norm relies on the premise: the world is engaged in an irreversible process of democratization and it can and must become democratic (Camau, 2006). The concealment of difficulties and paradoxes of the institution of the democracy and the negation of its social content contributed to the transformation of the democratic idea in an ideology of democratic universalism which nourishes Western political imaginary (Rosanvallon, 2007). Any deviations from the western norm of democracy are considered as "authoritarian tendencies", the expression forged during the Cold War. The media interpretations of the Orange Revolution in terms of the advent of democracy rely on the values and norms specific to Western societies.This paper will attempt to answer the following questions:-What is the role of press photography in the mediation of information and opinion in the internationalized communication space during the Orange Revolution?-What norms and values are involved in the construction of the visual world of the Orange Revolution? -In what way press photography manages to create a new category of space and time and a new form of citizenship, one that is built on solidarity and that transcends national boundaries? Comparing the coverage of this media event by media of different countries can stimulate the discussion of the relationship between visual images, norms and values. Otherwise, it can contribute to the discussion on the internationalization of political and media communication and its impact on the construction of visual worlds. Our analyses are based on the corpus of press photography published in November -December 2004 in Ukrainian, French, Russian and Canadian newspapers. The articulation of semiotics and discourse analysis will help to study the problem of the construction of media event and of its visual world in the era of internationalization of communication.
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Valentyna Dymytrova. L'événement -monde à travers la photographie de presse : la "revolution orange" dans la presse écrite ukrainienne, russe, canadienne et française. Communiquer dans un monde de normes. L'information et la communication dans les enjeux contemporains de la " mondialisation ", Mar 2012, France. pp.210. ⟨hal-00823883v2⟩

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