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Nouvelles formes d'intermédialités. Quand Internet s'imbrique dans les dispositifs classiques du cinéma

Abstract : New forms of intermedialityThe case of cinema and the internet This research aims at contributing to the study of intermediality (Muller, 2006), emphasizing the interdependences between cinema and the internet. the research focuses on a short and individual moment - being the spectator of a movie. it shows how this moment reflects the current evolutions of the devices surrounding the spectator's choices.literature reviewnowadays, movies are more and more " distributed [...] within multi-media groups " (Miège, 1997). thus, instead of viewing cinema as a 'victim' (Miège, 1997), 'cannibalized' by others media (television, Internet...), we will consider a cinema underlying their interpenetration (Miège, 1997). indeed, by generating an important mediatic mess, the cinematographic activity confirms relations of interdependence, interwea vings and complex overlappings of media underlined by some authors (Katz and al.,1973 ; Gaudreault and Jost, 2000 ; Cardon and al. 2005). We can mention, as such, an overlap between cinema and the internet; in order to choose the movie he will watch, a spectator can mobilize an 'e-cinematographic information', an hybrid content due to a close interpenetration of cinema with the internet. By intertwining, they offer an illustration of phenomena as transmediality (Jenkins, 2006; Dena, 2009) and intermediality (Mariniello, 2000 ; Muller, 2006).the internet puts itself at the service of cinema (Maresca, 2005), by offering to its users vast and interconnected spaces of communication (Dahlgren, 2000), new participatory devices and arenas (Dacheux, 2003), which can be comprehended as partial public spaces (Miège, 2010), showing extensions (levy, 2002) of the classical public space (Habermas, 1962). among these spaces, we can evoke blogs, forums, social networks... within which lambdas can emit their own judgement towards differents movies. these interfaces of debates and mediations between spectators and movies can represent a solution for persons choosing the movie they will watch. However, the cinematographic blogosphere isn't free from direct or indirect manipulations by movie directors. Frequently presented as independent judgement devices (Karpik, 2007), blogs and forums also represent capture devices (Cochoy, 2004).questions. How does intermediality give rise to an interweaving of judgement devices (Karpik, 2007) and capture devices (Cochoy, 2004) ?. How far and in which contexts can these devices be mobilized by the audience?. What transformations can be implied by intermediality generated by the cinematographic activity? methodologytwo levels of data have been distinguished. on the one hand, various datas concerning judgement devices (blogs, forums...) and capture devices (casting, synopsis...). on the other hand, ground datas concerning spectators, and resting on a corpus of dissimulated observations and qualitative interviews made in front of movie theatres.the data analysis consists in studying how e-devices play - or not - a part in the audience choices, within this or that social context.Results and implications New emerging forms of expressionMedia interweavings initiated by the cinematographic activity shake up some dichotomies related to the " formality " and the " informality " of sources of information and deconstruct some parallels between " formality " and " fiability ". Indeed, nowadays, we can observe an audience giving value and fiability to opinions expressed by anybody on line. this fact questions the idea of greater and systematic fiability of sources of information said 'formals'. able to assume the same 'responsibilities' than the sources of information said 'formals', some sources of information said 'informals' - delivered, for example, on line, by a 'common opinion' (Karpik, 2007) - show the importance which should be granted to these forms of emerging expressions, conveyed and carried, notably, by new media (Shefrin, 2004 ; Jenkins, 2006).Relativization of the traditional critical role since the development of the InternetBy expressing themselves through heterogeneous mediatic supports (press, television, internet,...), the film critics, often called 'cicerones' (Karpik, 2007), give a preview of interweavings initiated by the cinematographic activity. Moreover, they introduce some emergences, just like the distinction between the film critic said 'traditional' and the 'on line film critic". This differentiation implies some dissimilarities between the content and the presentation of the 'on line film critic' and those of the 'traditional film critic'. For example, an 'on line film critic' represents an expression subject to several internet characteristics, like immediacy and instantaneousness. In other words, if a film critic ap pearing in the traditional press can migrate on the internet and become an 'on line film critic', such action implies some transformations in their treatment and their reception. it does not involve the same costs, the same relations with the readers... in this case, the intermediality, generated by the cinematographic activity is revealed by the multi-mediatic expression of film critics. it induces some questioning among which we can mention the relativization of the traditional role of criticism since the development of the internet.
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Stéphanie Marty. Nouvelles formes d'intermédialités. Quand Internet s'imbrique dans les dispositifs classiques du cinéma. Communiquer dans un monde de normes. L'information et la communication dans les enjeux contemporains de la " mondialisation "., Mar 2012, France. pp.289. ⟨hal-00831967v2⟩

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