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L'appropriation des Tic par les professionnels de la presse : un nivellement des pratiques journalistiques à l'échelle planétaire ?

Abstract : The appropriation of ICT by professionals of the press : a leveling of journalistic practices on a global scale? This work is on the theme of standard communicative approaches in the organizations. It intends to highlight the reconfiguration of the press Congolese companies, as entrepreneurial ogranizations, in the context of information technology and communication (ICT) usage in the production activities, an usage considered as a key factor of any development on a global scale (Cf. Kiyindou, 2009). This configuration is understood from the evolution of journalistic practices in connection with the use of ICT, especially Internet, in the operations of information processing news. The information processing is understood here as "the manner to do, the mode that the informant decides to report use languages (and icon if it uses the image) the facts that he has selected, depending on predetermined target it with the fact that he chose to give "(Charaudeau, 1997, p.37); so this is a mode of writing the information to be disseminated. Indeed, the technological order on the release of the global concept of "information society" has led, in the press, a dynamic development based on the use of Internet in activities of production and diffusion of information. The professional appropriation of Internet was accompanied by a change in journalistic practices, leading to a new configuration of media companies in the digital age. This reconfiguration can be seen, among others, through the multimodal treatment or multimedia information, segmentation of audiences, the interactive communication, the diversification of media and informational supply (Cf. Damian, Ringoot, Ruellan, Thierry (ed.), 2001). We are particularly interesting in processing multimedia information release, to know if this aspect is part of the reconfiguration of the print media in "Internet era". This aspect seems to be really transversal to the other aspects mentioned, which would also facilitate their implementation.Considered by some practitioners as a way of writing related to the complexity of events to cover and diversity of their modes of reading (Cf. Johannès, 2007), processing multimedia information refers to the technical convergence which would participate in a social and economic trategy linked to the fragmentation of media consumption. Therefore, the computerization of editorial tasks, leading to the achievement of the writings screen, appears as a standard business development release. But that computerization has induced significant changes in the prioritization of tasks within the editorial. At the French press, for example, there is an organizational restructuring between technical service and writing service, thus calling into question the traditional hierarchy of editorial tasks. This redevelopment is observed through the shift from the category of service professionals in the technical service editorial and vice versa (Cf. Mathien, 2007), reinforcing the porosity of the frontier between the two services.Based on this observation, we asked whether the appropriation of ICT by professionals of the press induces around the same reconfiguration of practices. In other words, today do we attend to a leveling of journalistic practices in all areas where the Internet was introduced in the activities of production and diffusion of news? Our hypothesis is that the evolution of professional practices at the press is related both to the use of ICT and the business logic inherent in each socio-political environment. Indeed, beyond the simple observation of these mutations, they are logical ownership of ICT professionals in the press are at stake, because the introduction of Internet in the activities of production and diffusion of news gave rise, to the level of press, two main types of speeches, more catastrophic to the most prophetic. When some practitioners and essayists suggest a possible substitution of electronic media to the clipboard, claiming that the regime of the Internet marked "the end of journalism as it was lived up to" (Fogel, Patino, 2005, p.16), others say rather an integration perspective, promoting assimilation by the press of the "technological expansion" to "extract promising practices" (Johannès, 2007 , p.13). We are here in the assertion of a dual logic of operation of the press to the "Internet age", the breaking and integration. That suggests a bipolar partitioning of journalistic practices, depending on whether one falls within one or the other logic. Hence there is the need for serious questioning the logic of change underway in this sector of professional activities. And this question can be possible only through "empirical analysis and distanced of any changes in progress" (Rebillard, 2000, p.142). Thus, studying the case of print media companies in Congo, our analysis reveals the logic of professional appropriation of ICT which are structured around the local traditional practices.Crystallizing around the monopolization of the press-public relationship by the sphere of political action, these logics reveal an appropriation of ICT where the Internet appears more like a simple means of diffusion of traditional content focused on writing and image than a new mode of writing the news. This does not seem to affect the traditional hierarchy of editorial tasks, since the online content is provided by webmasters often outside the company (outsourcing of tasks) or employed only for this task. This perspective relativizes the assertion of a leveling of journalistic practices on a global scale, especially as ICT do not create professional practices "different from those promoted by the media in place" (Miege, 2010, p.134). To address this issue, we conducted a qualitative survey, through semi-structured interviews with professionals in the Congolese aund the French press. This survey is combined with a literature search and a personal observation of the functioning of a sample of Congolese newspapers, manly La Semaine Africaine and Les Dépêches de Brazzabille. After briefly defined our theoretical framework, mobilizing the concepts of "social anchorage techniques" and "social sphere", developed respectively by Bernard Miege and Pierre Bourdieu, we will analyze the journalistic practices in the "Internet age", building on the grounds of the Congolese press that we will put in perspective with the French example.
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https://hal.univ-lille3.fr/hal-00835845
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Submitted on : Monday, July 22, 2013 - 3:33:37 PM
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Pierre Minkala-Ntadi. L'appropriation des Tic par les professionnels de la presse : un nivellement des pratiques journalistiques à l'échelle planétaire ?. Communiquer dans un monde de normes. L'information et la communication dans les enjeux contemporains de la " mondialisation "., Mar 2012, France. pp.160. ⟨hal-00835845v2⟩

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