Des algorithmes comme actants interactionnels : formes organisationnelles et normes techniques dans le contexte des nouveaux médias

Abstract : The question of the organization usually refers to two sets of issues articulated to one another. The first refers to organizing as a process of building order and meaning through action and interaction (Quéré, 1991). The second refers to the analysis of the organization as a set of ordered and structured activities closed on themselves. The emergence of new media seems to impact both acceptance of organizing and organization and the way they are articulated. Not only because action and interaction seem to be more and more shared with these new devices, but also and above all, because through them is performed a dislocation of the organizing process and of the organization itself. In this paper, we would particularly focus our attention on platforms through which the traces left - voluntarily or not - by actors in the digital space are analyzed and compiled for composing "texts" guiding the actions of other actors. If these logics are now mobilized in a growing number of apparatuses - search engines, recommendation engines, trading software, etc.. - we will focus more specifically in this paper on the analysis of Google by offering us to answer the question: with what / who interacts actor - and possibly an organization through him - when it makes use of Google? And under what specific logic does he share its action with other actants?We would like to propose here a perspective of analysis to understand the hybrid nature of these new apparatus noticing that they are the result of an artifactual organization of communication through algorithms. To this end, we present a communicational approach of these new media and forms of organization on a pragmatic (Austin, 1991) (Searle, 2008) of distributed and dis-local conversational interactions (Cooren, 2010) taking into account the performative and organizational ability of algorithmic actants. In this context, we consider therefore that the use of Google or production of a hyperlink later analyzed by the PageRank algorithm (Page, Brin, Motwani &, 1999) can be analyzed as a sequence of interaction always -already underway with all contributors and users of the web. We will therefore adopt a symmetrical anthropological perspective to account for the role of algorithmic actants in the organization of these interactions. This approach invites us to question the notions of context, action and organization in the context of distributed and dis-local interactions in heterogeneous networks combining algorithmic actants and human actants. We will examine more precisely the organizing dimension of this process, and the forms of "spontaneous" order resulting from these uncoordinated and unintentional interactions. We question theories of organizing communication (J. Taylor, 2000) (JR Taylor & Van Every, 2010), (Cooren, JR Taylor & Van Every, 2006) in their contributions - dynamics of conversation and text - and their limitations. While these approches presuppose actors to intentionally produce a community of action before the process of organizing itself, we show that it is possible to identify in these networks of heterogeneous organizational actants phenomena that are not intentionally projected by any actors. We therefore examine the tensions between the logics of artefactually crystallized organization and forms of "spontaneous" communication deployed within it. This will lead us to tackle the question of intentionality and norm in the construction of these new organizational phenomena.Finally we will conclude by formulating some thoughts about what the use of these apparatuses involves concerning the nature of actants with which the organization shares its action and the nature of the ties that bind it to other social actors. To this end, we will consider the entry points that our approach could provide on the issue of real subsumption and interactional processes in the context of cognitive capitalism (Paulré, 2004) (Vercellone, 2003) ( Moulier Boutang, 2008), (Moulier Boutang, 2010), (Hardt & Negri, 2004) (Hardt & Negri, 2006). We'll sketch a reproblematization of the Marxian concept of "general intellect" so that it no longer refers to "knowledge" in general - as understood by most common interpretations (Virno , 1992) - but more as a movement of socialization, externalization (Stiegler, 1994) and dis-location of communication, organizing and coordination processes (Le Moënne, 2004) in which the normative question - technical, organizational and communicational - is central.
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Olivier Sarrouy. Des algorithmes comme actants interactionnels : formes organisationnelles et normes techniques dans le contexte des nouveaux médias. Communiquer dans un monde de normes. L'information et la communication dans les enjeux contemporains de la " mondialisation "., Mar 2012, France. pp.173, 2013. 〈hal-00839242v2〉

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