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Penser la refiguration normative : la collaboration interculturelle face au contraintes du dispositif numérique

Abstract : Thinking normative refiguration : intercultural collaborationin the constraints of a virtual environment Our research gives evidence to the fact that atechno-pedagogical virtual learning environmenthas a notable impact in the communication culture of the participants engaging in interaction within this environment (Wilhelm, 2009). these actors are characterized by multiple diversities : they differ nationally, linguistically and culturally and at the same time they share a professional culture and their status (university teachers for the most part). Following the hypothesis that their socialization has led to the emergence of tacit, implicit cultural rules (Dubar 2006 ; Henslin 2004) and that communication norms in an online context are specific as well (netiquette), just as the norms and rules of interaction in an educational environment (Peraya, 1999), do we then witness a normative refiguration due to distance interaction ? Will the prefigured norms of the actors align throughout the interactive process ? We will present a case study where those aforementioned three types of norms play together to allow for the emergence of a community of communication (Apel, 1973). We are studying a social interaction space : a collaborative distance learning environment. We are looking more precisely at the uses and practices inside this space and at the representations of the actors reflecting on their shared experience. the space includes a margin for improvisation as well as a possibility to negotiate norms and rules that configure the social structure. We are particularly interested in this negotiation of social territory. the paradigm of symbolic interaction is "is a theoretical framework based on the assumption that society involves interaction by which individuals actively construct reality in everyday life" (Maconis, 1991). if the social is constructed through constant negotiation and adaptation, by symbolic interaction, it is even more important to take into account outside influences, coming from outside the environment in question, for example cultural variables "imported" while using it. our results suggest that the participants in our online learning course work within a local context (school, university, work, home, cybercafé) and they face, in consequence, various constraints and affordances (schedules, accessibility, tutoring, technology available...). the environment that unites them and that is shared by all is the online learning environment, which, aside from allowing for written interactions, gives them a spatial environment of their own. the semiotic environment at hand is thus a blend of presence and distance. this dynamic necessarily begs the use of an intermediary space, that we need to take into account. it's this third space that can transform the initial primary cultural and material frames of the learner's experience. this is achieved by the voluntary breeching of the taken for granted frames of reference and by a methodology that uses socio-cognitive conflicts in its pedagogical approach but also by the equipement itself. By constructing a digital artifact like a platform for e-learning we construct a way of life (Winograd et Flores, 1986). the environment, as a conscious grouping of objects and rules for their use, configures the user (Woolgar, 1991). it achieves this by three means : the establishment of prohibitions, the introduction of constraints and the imposition of norms of good usage (Thévenot in Proulx, 2000). the digital or virtual environment thus establishes the frame of interaction and determines the potential margin of its users. in this context it's the tension between the ongoing intercultural collaboration and this determination that interests us here. or, to ask the question differently : does the prefiguration of the environment and its prescribed use overthrow the emergence of intercultural bricolage ? is there a culture inherent to the technical environment in which interactions pursue, just as the italianicity that Barthes used to designate cultural connotations which in turn Serge Proulx transformed into the concept of a perceived americanicity of technical information and communication objects (Proulx in Sauvageau, 1999) ? to give a concrete example : the diverse users do they feel that the graphical interface is culturally biased, that the online space exhibits symbolic links with an identifiable territory ? And what are the effects and manifestations in their practice ? our theoretical framework is an interactionist and socio-constructivist one. this approach makes use of activity theory (Engestrom, 1999) and mobilizes concepts such as mediation (Vygotsky, 1934, 1980 ; Peraya, 1999 ; Jeanneret et le tallec, 2005), social interaction space and frames of experience (Goffman, 1991), dispositif (Foucault, 1993 ; Jacquinot, 1999, 2002), situated action and learning (Lave, 1991) and distributed cognition (Hutchins, 1995a, 1995b). our units of analysis are the message or at least its lasting trace, archived as a mediator of collective action, the tools in use as semiotic tools of mediation (Vygotsky 1934, 1980), as instruments (rabardel, 1995) and as cognitive artifacts which are for anderson "something that organizes reality and provides an instrument for thought" (in Meunier et Peraya, 2004), and most of all the actor's representations of their shared experience. our analysis of this corpus of data provides insight into the undeniable weight of the virtual environment for collective communication and discourse. one question remains thus to be answered : this environmental effect, is it normalizing - in the sense of aligning and reducing diversity or is it the result of ongoing intercultural negotiation ? to answer this question the concept of affordance (Gibson, 1979) can be of help as the virtual ecosystem allows for a margin of use while at the same time being an actant in the sens of latour (1996) in emerging community norms. Thinking normative refiguration : intercultural collaborationin the constraints of a virtual environment
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Submitted on : Tuesday, October 29, 2013 - 10:26:12 AM
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Carsten Wilhelm. Penser la refiguration normative : la collaboration interculturelle face au contraintes du dispositif numérique. Communiquer dans un monde de normes. L'information et la communication dans les enjeux contemporains de la " mondialisation "., Mar 2012, France. pp.339. ⟨hal-00839272v4⟩



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