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L'espace public sous l'emprise des normes technoscientifiques. l'impossible rencontre des mouvements sociaux et des acteurs scientifiques dans les débats publics de la CNDP.

Abstract : The public sphere under the influence of technoscientific standards. The impossible meeting between social movements and scientific actors in the public debate of the CNDP.
Throughout its public debate, the Commission nationale du débat public (CnDP) sets the relationship in the public sphere between social movements criticizing technosciences and institutional scientific actors. The promoters and organizers, aiming at the legitimation of this participation processes mobilize the notions of dialogue and consensus. on the contrary, actors tend to radicalize themselves. Primarily, a radicalization of social movements that express structural claims (Kitschelt H., 1986) while refusing the participation imperative. Secondly, a radicalisation of scientific actors, who redefine this processes according to the postulate of vulgarization and knowledge gap model (Chavot P., Masseran a., 2010).This phenomenon of radicalization questions the operation of the scheme imposed by its mediators. indeed, the protagonists contribute, in accordance with their own stakes and logics, to shape the structure and the frame of the discourses in a particular way. thus, our main assumption stipulates that the participation processes established under the control of the CnDP are anchored in the continuity of scientific standards traditionally rooted in the history of public sphere. in that way, observable phenomenan during these public debates cannot be entirely explained by the observation of the processes and its actors alone. they rather require the reinstatement on the long run of both public sphere and joint institutionalization of their political and scientific structures (Pailliart i., 2005). Using a socio-historical approach, this paper will aim at studying the joint development of sciences, political structures and epistemological postulates. the objective is to highlight on the long turn a series of observations realized during the public debates initiated under the aegis of CnDP.the various theories of knowledge available are parts of the stakes and political tensions, resulting in a succession of a wide range of regime de science (Callon M. & al., 2001). Thus, the o¨ffentlichkeit defined, in the enlightenment, a certain conception by the bourgeoisie society of the critical use of the reason as opposed to the monarchic power (Habermas J., 1997). Historically, the practices linked to the vulgarization (Jurdant B., 2009) have a crucial role in the cultural processes from which will emerge a socialization phenomenon of this specific social class. However, in the post-revolutionary period, the european academies of sciences seek to dissociate the academic sciences and the popular sciences, by narrowing the criteria of scientificity (Bensaude Vincent B., 2003). the positivist philosophy, lead by SaintSimon and Comte, also emerge at that time (Mattelart A., 1999). The scientific research is reorganized in large institutional complexes in the aftermath of the Second World War. then, technoscience will be the central conditions of economic and geopolitical development of europe. in the meantime, an important wave of criticism develops at the point of the technocratic organization of contemporaneous societies (Pestre D., 2003) together with a science becoming gradually the determinant on the production (Marcuse H., 1968 ; Habermas J., 1973).Some characteristics of the CnDP's public debate limit the potential benefits : they present some consultative and post-active features (Blatrix et al., 2007). in addition, the implicit normativity in the debates not only dictates a legitimist prioritization (Liot F., 2006) between the different forms of knowledge but also distinguishes between the different categories of actors in a functionnalist cutting of the social world. The organizers distinguish between on the one hand the actors viewed as "experts" sitting on the scene and on the other hand, the public opinion gathered in a "mass audience". this distinction is remarkable in particular through the unequal allocation of resources to the different social actors (Bresson Gillet S., 2010). In fine, the expression of diversity of the forms of public speaking and mondes-vécus is reduced by the reconstruction of a pedagogical relationship. thus, the studying of the social movements and the scientific institutional actors shows a strengthening of the initial postures, based on a mutual defiance and meeting between different social identities. Far from the announced rupture, the public debates set under the aegis of the CDnP are in line with the historical continuity of the o¨ffentlichkeit of sciences in the public sphere.
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Submitted on : Saturday, October 19, 2013 - 8:07:30 PM
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Cyrille Bodin, Mikael Chambru. L'espace public sous l'emprise des normes technoscientifiques. l'impossible rencontre des mouvements sociaux et des acteurs scientifiques dans les débats publics de la CNDP.. Communiquer dans un monde de normes. L'information et la communication dans les enjeux contemporains de la " mondialisation "., Mar 2012, France. pp.303. ⟨hal-00840552⟩

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