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l'ICANN et les nouvelles extensions : une ouverture de l'internet à de nouvelles communautés d'utilisateurs ?

Abstract : Awaited since 2006, iCann (internet Corporation for assigned names and numbers), the organisation of international regulation of internet, began on January 12th 2012 to open up the Domain name System by launching the registration procedures and the online tlD application System (top-level Domain i.e. a component of web addresses).iCann manages the tlDs, such as dotfr, dotcom, dotbiz, using a name system, the DNS. The DNS provides the translation of the iP addresses from their digital form into a linguistic form. in 1984, in the rFC920 document, Jon Postel and Joyce reynolds designed the initial set of top-level domains in the DnS made of 5 generic top-level Domains (gtlDs) (.gov, .edu, .com, .org .mil) and 244 country-code top-level Domains (cctlDs) according to the iSo standard 3166-1 for the representation of names of Countries, such as .fr for France. (Klein, p. 123). in order to simplify, only communities referring to a recognized territory or that were economically relevant were considered for representation.Should we consider that the creation of this new tlD offers a new opportunity for discussing the process of the administrative homogenization based on ICANN discourse and the DNS, this web stabilization system? or, more precisely, which territories can adopt iCann's values and representations to guarantee their presence on the web?in 2006, when the tlD for the Catalan linguistic and cultural community (the dotcat) was accepted, a flaw appeared in this stabilized DNS. This region did not have a standard iSo 3166-1, and so was not supposed to be granted a country-code. However, Catalonia obtained a sponsored top-level Domain according to the iSo standard 639-2 for the representation of languages. this aberrant case in the DnS demonstrates that the strategies related to the technocratic structures (FoUCaUlt, 1993) come from political, economic and scientific rationalities, whereas the tactics are akin to métis, the art of trickery and "do-it-yourself" know-how. (De CerteaU, 1990). We will detail this métis in the case of the dotcat registration. Following the dotcat, many projects appeared whose purposes were territorial (such as .berlin, .paris) or cultural and linguistic, such as .bzh (Brittany). But in 2012 the new tlD will be open for companies as well: tlDs such as .boeing or .nike might appear.thus, this question of web addresses is neither anecdotal nor technical. the Url is always displayed in the address bar of a web browser and due to this visible position, it carries an " identity sign " (Jeanneret et al., p. 139). These authors analyze the circulation of writing on the web as social mediation, and they emphasize the role of the Url in the address bar of a web browser compared to the hyperlinks embedded in the text. " Cependant avant même d'exister à l'écran, dans la " page web " ouverte dans le navigateur, le texte peut se trouver qualifié dans une source extérieure - annuaire de recherche, liste d'Url, article de journal spécialisé - par son nom de domaine. " (SoUCHier et al. , p. 61).Within the process of this new tlD registration, the status of a web address may raise two questions:1. What does a tlD users' community mean?these registration modalities open up the black box of the notion of community so widespread throughout the web. How is a TLD users' community defined? The Bzh project's leaders must comply with the ICANN standards (technical and socio-economic). Borders related to physical territory should not appear. they must define a users' community worldwide and no longer at the regional level neither too large, nor too restricted in order to demonstrate the technical, operational, and financial viabilities of the project. Who are the actors who will compose this tlD? through this move, the artefact and its international regulatory body not only monitor the technical distribution of domain names but design the very notion of community on the web. However, there is a difference between a dotbiz community and a cultural and linguistic dotbzh users' community. By comparing the Catalan and the Breton projects and by analyzing the ICANN's TLD applicant's guidebook, we shall discuss the notion of community as related to organizational and political stakes, using the concept of " imagined community " (anDerSon, 2002).2. What are the territories able to exist on the web, to transpose themselves from a " physical " territory to a " web " territory?these registration modalities create a constraining framework that favours compromises between States interests, firms' interests (brands and trademarks) and the DnS stability. this opening-up is labelled as a "democratization process" whereas the cost of registration is growing and the arbitration's proceedings will rely on auction sales. Dealing with this regulation process carried out by an international regulatory body, the various territories (without any legal status of representation in iCann terms) can nevertheless grab the opportunity offered by the cultural diversity argument on the web. We shall detail the felicity conditions for the existence of any given territory on the web, specifying the nature of mediations between a territory and the web in this new frame of reference.Our method is based on 4 interviews of dotbzh project leaders and the analysis of iCann tlD applicant guidebooks conducted since 2008. We shall compare the BZH project with the doctcat project. in order to describe the mediations between a territory and the web, we shall rely on 5 mediations resulting from the analysis of a corpus (collected and designed during our PhD thesis) consisting of 591 websites. this corpus, "Breton regional Web", was indexed using 11 attributes and a 7-step semiotic analysis of each website was conducted in order to show how an attachment to a territory on a website works. this analysis emphasizes the specific importance of the URL as a sign for naming as well as for creating identification with a territorial attachment on the web.
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https://hal.univ-lille3.fr/hal-00825937
Contributor : Compte Laboratoire Geriico <>
Submitted on : Monday, July 22, 2013 - 3:29:00 PM
Last modification on : Thursday, February 7, 2019 - 3:00:01 PM
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  • HAL Id : hal-00825937, version 3

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Marianning Le Béchec. l'ICANN et les nouvelles extensions : une ouverture de l'internet à de nouvelles communautés d'utilisateurs ?. Communiquer dans un monde de normes. L'information et la communication dans les enjeux contemporains de la " mondialisation "., Mar 2012, France. pp.129. ⟨hal-00825937v3⟩

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